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Bruce E Gnade
Vice President for Research-Research, Office of the Vice President for, Professor-Materials Science & Engineering, Department of
Office MailstopRoom No.: MP 3.208 
Email Address  gnade@utdallas.edu    Primary Phone Number 972-883-6636    URL UTD Webpage    Media Contact
Administrative Assistant:  Help  
Marlaine Tobin
 Professional Preparation
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 DegreeMajorInstitutionYear
 Ph.D.Nuclear ChemistryGeorgia Institute of Technology1982
 B.A.ChemistrySt. Louis University1976
Collapse Section Expand Section Research and Expertise
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Research Interests
  • Electronic materials with an emphasis on dielectrics (low-K, high-K, and gate dielectrics other than SiO2)
  • Display technology
  • Materials characterization
  • Nuclear chemistry
  • Passivation and Release for Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Devices
  • Low Temperature Processing for Flexible Electronics
  • High-k Gate Dielectrics and Metal Gates
  • Micro Gas Analysis
Display Materials
  • Field emission materials
  • Thin-film getters
  • Spacer materials Molecular electronics
Collapse Section Expand Section Publications
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 2 3 4 Next>> 41>>  
  YearPublication  Type
2012
Carrillo-Castillo, A., Salas-Villasenor, A., Mejia, I., Aguirre-Tostado, S., Gnade, B. E., & Quevedo-López, M. A. "P-type thin films transistors with solution-deposited lead sulfide films as semiconductor." Thin Solid Films, 520(7), 3107-3110 (2012).
Peer reviewed
2012
Charkhkar, H., Knaack, G. L., Gnade, B. E., Keefer, E. W., & Pancrazio, J. J.. "Development and demonstration of a disposable low-cost microelectrode array for cultured neuronal network recording." Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, 161(1), 655-660 (2012).
Peer reviewed
2012
Ratanatawanate, C., Perez, M., Gnade, B. E., & Balkus Jr., K. J.. "Layer-by-layer assembly of titanate nanosheets/poly- (ethylenimine) on PEN films." Materials Letters, 66(1), 242-245 (2012).
Peer reviewed
2011
Xiong, K., Sobhani, S., Gupta, R. P., Wang, W., Gnade, B. E., & Cho, K.. "First principles study of electronic structures of dopants in mg 2Si." Paper presented at the Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 1329 47-52 (2011).
Peer reviewed
2011
Fuentes-Fernandez, E., Baldenegro-Perez, L., Quevedo-Lopez, M., Gnade, B., Hande, A., Shah, P., & Alshareef, H. N.. "Optimization of pb(zr 0.53,ti 0.47)O 3 films for micropower generation using integrated cantilevers." Solid-State Electronics, 63(1), 89-93 (2011). 
Peer reviewed
Collapse Section Expand Section Presentations and Projects
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  1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
Start DateEnd DatePresentation/Project
9/2005 4/2006 Miniature Broadband Laser Magnetometer for ASW
Polatomic / ONR STTR

Amount: $21,960
9/2002 8/2005 Nanocomposite Materials for Enhanced Reliability of Flexible, Emissive, Displays for DoD Applications
Army Research Laboratories
(N. D'Souza Co-PI)

Amount: $800,000 ($380,000 subcontracts to ITC and Clemson) 
7/2005 6/2008 Improved Barrier Properties in Flexible, Plastic Substrates
Army Research Laboratory

Amount: $300,000
7/2005 6/2008 Hydrogen Barrier Studies for FeRAM Devices
Semiconductor Research Corporation     
(Co-PI with Bob Wallace)

Amount: $106,000
7/2004 7/2005 Fabrication and Testing of NanoBench
UHV Technologies (DARPA subcontract)
  
Amount: $24,899 
Collapse Section Expand Section Affiliations
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Collaborators
Tayo Akinwande (MIT), D. Allee (ASU), K.J. Balkus (UT Dallas), R. Ramesh (Univ. of Cal. Berkeley), L. Colombo (Texas Instruments), B. Ratna (NRL),
Manuel Quevedo-Lopez (UT Dallas), Mohammad Omary (UNT), R. Shashidhar (GeoCenters) , J. L. Duggan (UNT), G. Raupp (ASU), Sigurd Wagner (Princeton),
M.J. Kim (UT Dallas), R.M. Wallace (UT Dallas),
J. Kushmerick (NIST).
Graduate and Postdoctoral Advisors
Prof. R.W. Fink, Dept. of Chemistry, Ga. Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
 Postgraduate Sponsor
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate-Scholar Sponsor (last 5 years)
Dr. Huiping Xia, Dr. Prasanna Sivasubramani, Dr. Andy Brown Sr. Scientist, Polatomic, Inc. , Dr. Mark Tinker Program Manager, Stallaray, Dr. Prakaipetch Punchaipetch Research Scientist NARA, Japan, Dr. Jesus Castillo Saltillo Institute of Technology, Dr. S. Nasrazadani, Dept. of Engineering Technology, Univ. of North Texas
 Thesis Advisor
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate-Scholar Sponsor (last 5 years)
Soumitra Godbole (MS), Agnieszka Jakubowicz (MS), Kevin Chapla (MS), Sajed Chowdhrury (MS), Namrata Bansal (MS), David Iyore (MS), Srinivas Gowrisanker (PhD), Zheng Tao (PhD), Gaurang Pant, Fadziso Mantiziba, Unnat Bhansali, Yuming Ai, John Murphy, Julius Horvath, Stacey MacLeroy, Mike Perez, William Kaberlee, Erica Fuentes, Adrian Avendano, Duo Mao (all current PhD students)
Collapse Section Expand Section Appointments
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DurationRankDepartment / SchoolCollege / OfficeUniversity / Company
2006-PresentVice President for ResearchResearch The University of Texas at Dallas
2005-PresentDistinguished ChairMicroelectronics The University of Texas at Dallas
2003-PresentProfessorEE & Chem Departments University of Texas at Dallas
2001-2002Board of Directors  PixTech, Inc
2001-2003Guest ResearcherNIST  
1999-2003ChairmanMaterials Science University of North Texas
1996-1998Visiting ScientistDept. of Materials and Nuclear Energy University of Maryland
1996-1999Program ManagerDARPA Department of Defense
1996-1996Manager1 Gbit Process Integration Texas Instruments
1994-1996ManagerFED Technology Division Texas Instruments
1989-1994ManagerAdvanced Silicon Materials Texas Instruments
1982-1989Technical StaffCentral Research Laboratories Texas Instruments
 Synergistic Activities
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Synergistic Activities
  • Associate Editor, J. Vac. Science and Technology B. (1994-1997).
  • Technical Committee, Emissive Materials, Society for Information Displays, 2001-Present
  • Symposium Organizer, "Flexible Electronics: Materials and Device Technology", Spring MRS 2003/2004, Boston.
  • Associate Editor, IEEE/OSA J. Display Technology (2004-present)
  • National Academies Board of Assessment of NIST Programs EEEL (2004-present)

 Support
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 DurationTitleSponsorAmountStatus
10/10-9/14Large Area Imaging Neutron Detector Based on Flexible CMOS and NanoparticleArizona State University/National Science Foundation2,225,000Pending
9/08-9/12Organic Diode ArraysIV-Smart Technolgies136,200Current
10/09-9/10Solar-Grade Silicon Manufacturing Cost Reduction through Purification of SiO2 from a Sub-Premium Quartz Mine through Removal of Metallic Impurities21-Century Silicon, Inc.120,914Current
9/09-8/12Metalloaromatic Multinuclear Complexes of Monovalent Coinage Metals: Novel Chemistry DrivingUniversity of North Texas/National Science Foundation301,462Current
3/08-8/10High Energy Density Piezoelectric Thin Films and Energy Harvesting DevicesTexas MicroPower/Texas Emerging Technology Fund141,355Current
8/10-7/13World Materials Network: Novel Printable Materials for Electroluminescent Active Matrix DisplaysNational Science Foundation611,144Pending
6/09-6/10Characterization of Liquid Crystal Materials and DisplaysSyndiant/Texas Emerging Technology Fund79,973Current
6/07-6/10Center for Organic Semiconductor Modeling and Simulation (COSMOS)UT Tyler/US Army1,365,522Current
10/06-05/11Electronic TextilesMilitary Tech275,879Current
3/10-2/13Active Cooling ModuleMarlow Industries/DARPA345,394Pending
4/08-12/12Realization and Characterization of Graphene-Based DevicesUT Austin/NERC/NIST900,000Current
6/10-2/11Magnetic Removal of Kidney StonesKidney Stone Tech/National Science Foundation STTR89,505Pending
6/10-2/11High Efficiency White Organic Light Emitting Diode Using a New Pt Complex Dopant4S Lighting, Inc./Department of Energy SBIR/STTR40,000Pending
3/19-2/10Demonstration of a Small Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer to Monitor Indoor Air QualityUT Tyler/Texas Emerging Technology Fund90,400Current
9/1/10-8/31/15I/UCRC: Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and SystemsNational Science Foundation Pending
5/08-1/11Metal Organic Field Effect TransistorsTexas Advanced Research Program150,000Current
2/15/09-1/31/10Collaborative Research Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS)National Science Foundation9,945Current
1/09-1/10StoneMag System: Kidney Stone Magnetic Retrieval SystemTexas Ignition Fund (TIF)/UT System (RTT)50,000Current
10/06-1/10Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDsUniversity of North Texas/Department of Energy546,000Current
       Teaching HelpHelp  
 Additional Information
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Associate Editor of IEEE Journal of Display Technology

Professional Activity
Membership in Professional Organizations:
  • Materials Research Society
  • American Physical Society
  • Society for Information Displays

Offices and Committee Assignments in Professional Organizations:
  • Associate Editor, J. Vac. Science and Tech. B. (1994-1997)
  • Advisory Committee, 3rd and 4th International Conf. On Science and Tech. Of Display Phosphors
  • Co-Chair, Topical Conference on Flat Panel Displays, 47th AVS meeting Oct. 2000
  • Co-Chair SPIE Conference on Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Flat Panel Displays, Jan. 1999
  • Co-Chair SPIE Conference on Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Flat Panel Displays, Jan. 2000
  • Technical Committee, International Display Research Conference, Sept. 2000.
  • United States Civilian Research and Development Foundation, Proposal review panel, 2000-2003
  • U.S. Dept. of Defense, Information Science and Technology study group on Computational Fabric, 2000.
  • Guest Editor, Proceedings of the IEEE 90, Special Issue on Flat Panel Display Technology, April 2002.
  • Symposium Organizer, Flexible Electronics: Materials and Device Technology, Spring MRS 2003-2004.
  • Session Organizer, Front-End Materials and Processes for Scaled Silicon CMOS, Spring APS 2003.

Honors
Sigma Xi award for outstanding doctoral thesis, Ga. Tech

Patents Issued
  • B.E. Gnade and R.M. Wallace, "Method for Using Field Emitter Arrays in Chemical and Biological Hazard Mitigation and Remediation", U.S. Pat. # 7,288,171 (2007).
  • I. Gory, B. Gnade, F. Mantiziba, "Stiction Resistant Release Process", U.S. Pat. # 7,087,456 (2006).
  • M.A. Quevedo Lopez, R.M. Wallace, M. El Bouanani and B.E. Gnade, "Method of Removing Contaminants on a Substrate", U.S. Pat. # 6,933,235 (2005).
  • R.M. Wallace and B.E. Gnade, "Gate Structure and Method", U.S. Pat. # 6,784,507 B2 (2004).
  • D.M. Smith, P. Johnston, W.C. Ackerman, R.A. Stoltz, A. Maskara, T. Ramos, S.P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, "Low Volatility Solvent-Based Method for Forming Thin-Film Nanoporous Aerogels on Semiconductor Substrates", U.S. Pat. # 6,645,878 B2 (2003).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, and B.E. Gnade, "Lightly donor doped electrodes for high-dielectric-constant materials", U.S. Pat. #6,593,638 (2003).
  • D.M. Smith, G.P. Johnson, W.C. Ackerman, S.-P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, "Aerogel Thin Film Formation from Multi-Solvent Systems", U.S. Pat. # 6,437,007 B1 (2002).
  • W.P. Kirk, J.X. Zhou, B.E. Gnade, C.-C. Cho, "Method of Forming Lattice Matched Layer over a Surface of a Silicon Substrate", U.S. Pat. # 6,419,742 B1 (2002).
  • D.M. Smith, G.P. Johnston, W.C. Ackerman, R.A. Stoltz, A. Maskara, T. Ramos, S-P. Jeng, and B.E. Gnade, "Low Volatility Solvent-Based Method for Forming Thin-Film Nanoporous Aerogels on Semiconductor Substrates", U.S. Pat. # 6,380,105 B1 (2002).
  • S.V. Hanttangady, R.M. Wallace, B.E. Gnade, and Y. Okuno, "Integrated Dielectric and Method", U.S. Pat. # 6,335,238 (2002).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, and B.E. Gnade, "Lightly donor doped electrodes for high-dielectric-constant materials", U.S. Pat. #6,319,542 (2001).
  • B.E. Gnade and S.R. Summerfelt, "Electrical connections to dielectric materials", U.S. Pat. #6,275,370 (2001).
  • B.E. Gnade and S.R. Summerfelt, "Electrical connections to dielectric materials", U.S. Pat. #6,215,650 (2001).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, B. Gnade, "Lightly donor doped electrodes for high- dielectric-constant materials", U.S. Pat. # 6,204,069 (2001).
  • C.-C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, D.M. Smith. J. Changming, W.C. Ackerman, and G.C. Johnston, "Porous Dielectric Material with Improved Pore Surface for Electronics Applications", U.S. Pat. 6,140,252 (2000).
  • D.M. Smith, G.P. Johnston, W.C. Ackerman, S-P. Jeng, and B.E. Gnade, "Aerogel Thin Film Formation from Multi-Solvent Systems", U.S. Pat. 6,130,152 (2000).
  • B. Gnade, S. Summerfelt, and P. Kirlin, "Method of forming sidewall capacitance structure", U.S. Pat. 6,033,919 (2000).
  • D.M. Smith, G.P. Johnston, W.C. Ackerman, R.A. Stoltz, A. Maskara, T. Ramos, S.-P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, "Low Volatility Solvent-Based Method for Forming Thin Film Nanoporous Aerogels on Semiconductor Substrates", U.S. Pat. 5,955,140 (1999).
  • J.D. Levine, C.C. Shen, and B.E. Gnade, "Method of Making an Ambient Light Absorbing Face Plate for Flat Panel Display", U.S. Pat. 5,911,616 (1999).
  • J.D. Levine, C.C. Shen, and B.E. Gnade, "Flat Panel Display Anode Plate Having Isolation Grooves", U.S. Pat. 5,871,383 (1999).
  • S.R. Riley, K. Balkus, B.E. Gnade, "Method of Forming a Capacitance Type Gaseous Sensing Device and Apparatus Thereof", U.S. Pat. 5,857,250 (1999).
  • C.-C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, D.M Smith, J. Changming, W.C. Ackerman, and G.C. Johnston, "Porous Dielectric Material with Improved Pore Surface Properties for Electronic Applications", U.S. Pat. 5,847,443 (1998).
  • S.R. Riley, K. Balkus, B.E. Gnade, "Method of Forming a Capacitance Type Gaseous Sensing Device and Apparatus Thereof", U.S. Pat. 5,828,542 (1998).
  • B.E.  Gnade, C.C. Cho, D.M. Smith, " Method of Making a Low Dielectric Constant Material for Electronics", U.S. Pat. 5,804,508 (1998).
  • B.E.  Gnade, C.C. Cho, D.M. Smith, "Low dielectric constant material for Electronic Applications", U.S. Pat. 5,789,819 (1998).
  • S-P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, "Method of Making a Hydrogen-rich, Low Dielectric Constant Gate Insulator for Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,772,485 (1998).
  • B.E. Gnade, C.-C. Cho, and D.M. Smith, "Low Dielectric Constant Layers via Immiscible Sol-Gel Processing", U.S. Pat. 5,750,415 (1998).
  • R.H. Havemann, S.-P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, C.-C. Cho, "Interconnect Structure with an Integrated Low Density Dielectric", U.S. Pat. 5,747,880 (1998).
  • S.-P. Jeng, J.J. Lin, B.E. Gnade, and D.I. Robbins, "Method of Forming Spacers for a Flat Panel Display Apparatus", U.S. Pat. 5,733,160 (1998).
  • C.-C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, and D.M. Smith, "Porous Dielectric Material with Improved Pore Surface Properties for Electronics Applications", U.S. Pat. 5,723,368 (1998).
  • R.M Wallace, J.M. Anthony, B.E. Gnade, and C.-C. Cho, "Anode Plate for Flat Panel Display Having Integrated Getter", U.S. Pat 5,689,151 (1997).
  • S-P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, "Hydrogen-rich, Low Dielectric Constant Gate Insulator for Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,684,356 (1997).
  • R.H. Havemann, B.E. Gnade, C-C Cho,  "Porous Dielectric Material with a Passivation Layer for Electronics Applications",  U.S. Pat. 5,661,344 (1997).
  • B.E. Gnade, D.G. Evans, S.R. Summerfelt, J.D. Levine, "Method of Making an Anode Plate for use in a Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,643,033 (1997).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, B.E. Gnade, "High-dielectric-constant material electrodes comprising thin ruthenium dioxide layers", U.S. Pat. 5,619,393 (1997).
  • R.M. Wallace, B.E. Gnade, W.P. Kirk, "Anode plate for flat panel display having silicon getter", U.S. Pat. 5,614,785 (1997).
  • K.G. Vickers, L.A. Files, C.C. Shen, B.E. Gnade, "Method for Improving Flat Panel Display Anode Plate Phosphor Efficiency", U.S. Pat.  5,611,719 (1997).
  • J.D. Levine, C.C. Shen, B.E. Gnade, "Ambient Light Absorbing Face Plate for Flat Panel Display", U.S. Pat. 5,608,286 (1997).
  • K.G. Vickers, C.C. Shen, B.E. Gnade, J.D. Levine, "Black Matrix SOG as an Interlevel Dielectric in a Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,608,285 (1997).
  • J.D. Levine, B.E. Gnade, "Tetrode Arrangement for Color Field Emission Flat Panel Display With Barrier Electrodes on the Anode Plate", U.S. Pat. 5,606,225  (1997).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, P.S. Kirlin, B.E. Gnade, "High-Dielectric-Constant Material      Electrodes Comprising Thin Platinum Layers",  U.S. Pat 5,581,436  (1996).
  • K.G. Vickers, C.C. Shen, B.E. Gnade, J.D. Levine, "Method for Fabricating a Field Emission Device                       Having Black Matrix SOG as an Interlevel Dielectric", U.S. Pat. 5,577,943 (1996).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan, P.S. Kirlin, B.E. Gnade, "High-Dielectric-Constant Material      Electrodes Comprising Thin Platinum Layers",  U.S. Pat 5,576,928  (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, J.D. Levine, "Low Density, High Porosity Material as Gate Dielectric for Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,569,058 (1996).
  • S.R. Summerfelt, H.R. Beratan,  P.S. Kirlin, B.E. Gnade, "High-Dielectric-Constant Material Electrodes Comprising Thin Platinum Layers", U.S. Pat.  5,566,045 (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, D.M. Smith, "Porous Composites as a Low Dielectric Constant Material for Electronics Applications", U.S. Pat. 5,561,318 (1996).
  •  R.H. Taylor, K.G. Vickers, B.E. Gnade, A.M Wilson, C.E. Primm, "Field Emission Microtip Clusters Adjacent Stripe Conductors", U.S. Pat. 5,556,316 (1996).
  • R.H. Taylor, K.G. Vickers, B.E. Gnade, A.M Wilson, C.E. Primm, "Field Emission Microtip Clusters Adjacent Stripe Conductors", U.S. Pat. 5,557,159 (1996).
  • R.H. Taylor, K.G. Vickers, B.E. Gnade, A.M. Wilson, C.E. Primm, "Clustered Field Emission Microtips Adjacent Stripe Conductors", U.S. Pat. 5,536,993 (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, D.G. Evans, S.R. Summerfelt, and J.D. Levine, "Anode Plate with Opaque Insulating Material for use in a Field Emission Display", U.S. Pat. 5,528,102 (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, and J.D. Levine, "Low Density, High Porosity Material as Gate Dielectric for Field Emission Device", U.S. Pat. 5,525,857 (1996).
  • R.M. Wallace, D. A. Webb, and B.E. Gnade, "Self-Assembled Monolayer Coating for Micro-Mechanical Devices", U.S. Pat. 5,523,878 (1996).
  • C.C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, and D.M. Smith, "Porous Dielectric Material with Improved Pore Surface Properties for Electronics Applications", U.S. Pat. 5,523,615 (1996).
  • R.M. Wallace, B.E. Gnade, C.C. Shen, J.D. Levine, and R.H. Taylor, "Method of Making a Field Emission Device Anode Plate Having an Integrated Getter", U.S. Pat. 5,520,563 (1996).
  • C.C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, and D.M. Smith, "Porous dielectric material with improved pore surface properties for electronics applications", U.S. Pat. 5,504,042 (1996).
  • D.A. Webb and B.E. Gnade, "Method for fabricating a DMD spatial light modulator with a hardened hinge", U.S. Pat. 5,504,614 (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, and D.M. Smith "Method for forming porous composites as a low dielectric constant layer with varying porosity distribution electronics applications", U.S. Pat. 5,494,858 (1996).
  • J.D. Levine, C.C. Shen, and B.E. Gnade, "Flat Panel Display Anode Plate Having Isolation Grooves", U.S. Pat. 5,491,376 (1996).
  • R.H. Havemann, S.P. Jeng, B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, "Method of making an interconnect structure with an integrated low density dielectric", U.S. Pat. 5,488,015 (1996).
  • B.E. Gnade, R.F. Pinizzotto, and C.L. Littler, "Three Dimensional Ferroelectric Integrated Circuit Without Insulation Layer Between Memory Layers", U.S. Pat. 5,487,031 (1996).
  • R.H. Havemann, B.E. Gnade, C.C. Cho, "Method of fabricating porous dielectric material with a passivation layer for electronics applications", U.S. Pat. 5,472,913 (1995).
  • B.E.  Gnade, C.C. Cho, D.M. Smith, "Method of making a semiconductor device using a low dielectric constant material", U.S. Pat. 5,470,802 (1995).
  • R.M. Wallace, B.E. Gnade, C.C. Shen, J.D. Levine, and R.H. Taylor, "Anode Plate for Flat Panel Display Having Integrated Getter", U.S. Pat. 5,453,659 (1995).
  • B.E. Gnade, R.F. Pinizzotto, and C.L. Littler, "Three Dimensional Ferroelectric Integrated Circuit Without Insulation Layer Between Memory Layers", U.S. Pat. 5,375,085 (1995).
  • B.E. Gnade, S.R. Summerfelt, "Method of Forming Electrical Connections to High Dielectric Constant Materials", U.S. Pat. 5,348,894 (1994).
  • R.M. Wallace, B.E. Gnade, "Directed Effusive Beam Atomic Layer Epitaxy System and Method", U.S. Pat. 5,316,793 (1994).
  • C.C. Cho, B.E. Gnade, "Via Filling by Single Crystal Aluminum", U.S. Pat. 5,262,361 (1993).
  • C.C. Cho, T.S. Kim, B.E. Gnade, Y. Nishioka, and H-Y Liu, "Method of Improving the Interface Characteristics of CaF2 on Silicon", U.S. Pat 5,229,333 (1993).
  • B.E. Gnade and J.A. Keenan, "Apparatus and Process for testing leaks in packaging for integrated circuits", U.S. Pat. 5,001,343 (1991).
  • J.H. Tregilgas and B. Gnade, "Semiconductor Purification by Solid State Electromigration", U.S. Pat. 4,675,087 (1987).

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